3). Immersion of
the substrate in the solution of surfactant compound for
elimination of defects (if necessary).
washing with polar and non-polar organic solvents (second time)
and with distilled water.
necessary for closely packed monolayer formation depends mainly
on the nature of the surface to be coated, type of surfactant
molecules, and on solution concentration. This interval is
usually in the range from few minutes to several hours (e.g.,
for organosilicon derivatives and alkanethiols), but in some
cases can reach several days (e.g., for sulfides and