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3). Immersion of the substrate in the solution of surfactant compound for elimination of defects (if necessary).

4). Sample washing with polar and non-polar organic solvents (second time) and with distilled water.

Time interval necessary for closely packed monolayer formation depends mainly on the nature of the surface to be coated, type of surfactant molecules, and on solution concentration. This interval is usually in the range from few minutes to several hours (e.g., for organosilicon derivatives and alkanethiols), but in some cases can reach several days (e.g., for sulfides and disulfides).

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